After the decline of the Roman Empire and before the inauguration controversies, the investiture, although theoretically a task of the Church, was carried out in practice by members of the religious nobility. Many bishops and abbots were themselves part of the reigning nobility. As an older son would inherit the title of father, siblings often found a career in the church. This was especially true when the family might have built its own church or abbey on its estate. Since Otto I (936-972), the bishops had been princes of the Empire, had obtained many privileges and had become largely feudal lords in the great areas of imperial territory. The control of these large units of economic and military power was a primary issue for the king, since it concerned imperial authority. It was essential for a sovereign or nobleman to appoint (or sell the office) who would remain loyal. The concordat of Worms ended the first phase of the struggle for power between the papacy and the holy Roman emperors and was interpreted to mean the seed of national sovereignty, which would one day be confirmed in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). This was partly an unforeseen result of strategic maneuvers between the Church and European leaders on political control within their territories.
The inauguration controversy began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII (1072-1085) and Emperor Henry V (1056-1106). Between 1103 and 1107, Henry I of England and Pope Paschalis II also argued over the brief but important inauguration, and the subject also played a minor role in the struggles between church and state in France. After the Second Vatican Council, which ended in 1965, the term “concordate” was abolished, but it reappeared with the Polish Concorda of 1993 and the Portuguese Concorda of 2004. Another model of relations between the Vatican and different states developed following the declaration of the Second Vatican Council on religious freedom, Dignitatis humanae. [Citation required] The situation worsened when Henry IV appointed his chaplain Tedald, a Milanese priest, as bishop of Milan, while another priest from Milan, Atto, had already been elected by the Pope to run. In 1076, the Pope reacted by excommunicating Henry and dispossessing him as king of Germany and sending all Christians back from their oath of allegiance to him. A concordant is an agreement between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the State in matters that concern both i.e. the recognition and privileges of the Catholic Church in a given country and with secular issues that affect the interests of the Church. If the political will exists, these privileges can be extended by national legislation. In 1992, the tax exemption granted to the Church by the Italian Concordat was interpreted by a law that allows the Catholic Church not to pay 90% of the debts it owes to the State for its commercial activities.  Thus, a small sanctuary between the walls of a cinema, a resort, a store, a restaurant or a hotel is sufficient to grant a religious exception.  In June 2007, EU Competition Commissioner Neelie Kroes announced an investigation.
Then, in August, the deputy finance minister said in Romano Prodi`s fragile centre-left coalition that the problem should be addressed in next year`s budget.  Subsequently, the Barroso Commission did not hear from him and, a few months later, the Prodi government fell. Jurors of allegiance united the feudaldal political structure of medieval Europe. The principle behind the impeachment was that the Pope, as the ultimate representative of God, from whom all oaths derive their strength, could, in extreme circumstances, free the subjects of a sovereign from their loyalty and render the sovereign powerless.