The WAB agrees to withdraw Boris Johnson, which is a draft international treaty, into British law and gives the government permission to ratify it. On 20 December 2019, after the Conservatives won the 2019 British general election, the House of Commons passed second reading of the withdrawal agreement with a 358-234 lead. Following the amendments proposed by the House of Lords and the ping-pong between the two houses, the bill was granted royal approval on 23 January 2020, allowing ratification on the British side.  On July 24, 2018, the government presented a white paper on the bill and how legislation works.  The bill was first introduced by the government at the second session stagnated on 21 October 2019 by the government, entitled “A Bill to Implement, and make other provision in connection with, the agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU under Art 50, paragraph 2 of the Treaty on European Union which sets the arrangements for the rekingdom from the EU”.  This bill was not discussed further after second reading in the House of Commons on October 22, 2019, and passed on November 6, when Parliament was dissolved in preparation for the 2019 general election. A number of clauses in the previous version of the act have been removed. The bill was first introduced in Parliament on 21 October 2019, but expired on 6 November with the dissolution of Parliament in preparation for the December 2019 parliamentary elections. After the WAB becomes law, the withdrawal agreement must also be ratified by the European Parliament.
On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement, the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.    An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  On January 21, 2020, the House of Lords passed the law after passing five amendments.